The Mongolian race is one of the most popular of the native bovine races. Two varieties exist: the Ujumqin and the Halhïn Gol.
The Ujumqin race is mainly found in Inner Mongolia, an independent region of the Peoples Republic of China. It has been raised for centuries by nomads and prized for the quality of its meat.
It is generally dark brown with reddish streaks but it can also be black. It can produce 500-600 kg of milk in the first 5 months of lactation containing 5% fat. The average weight of a Ujumqin bull is 420 kg, whilst that of an adult cow is around 370 kg. In addition, it can tolerate temperatures as low as – 30 to – 40 degrees.
Its meat is consumed dry with vegetables and fried with potatoes and celery. It is also used in the preparation of various traditional dishes.
From the beginning of the ’60s, the traditional pastoral system of Inner Mongolia was progressively replaced with collectivisation and intensification of agricultural production and raising. The native races were replaced and the raising of sheep for wool became widespread. The Ujumqin race so became less diffuse.