A population is group of individuals from the same species with similar characteristics. A population can be more or less homogenous. As with breeds, the role of farmers is fundamental. They can recognize a population on the basis of visible characteristics (coat or plumage, size, shape of the horns or tail, etc.) and behavior (productivity, fertility, etc.).
The population is to the breed as the ecotype is to the variety (or cultivar), being less stable and not officially recorded in a genealogical register.
Examples of native populations are the Mushunu chicken in Kenya and the Roccaverano and Cilentana goats in Italy.