The Bergamo escarole is an ecotype of Cichorium endivia latifolium that has been selected in the hilly areas of Bergamo. It is now grown only on the small plots of land located around the walls of the Città Alta. The enclosure walls of the city create a peculiar microclimate which protects it from excessive cold and wind. The escarole is a typical winter vegetable and belongs to the family of endives. It is sown at the end of July; then, at the end of October, each head is tied with a lace to make sure that the inside leaves are not exposed to the light. When winter comes, the young plants are transferred to the old cellars of the Città Alta and opened in the dark. The inside leaves keep on ripening, but do not take on any color. These techniques have been modernized elsewhere, where controlled temperature warehouses are used. The concept is similar, but the taste achieved is not always of the same quality. The light heart of the Bergamo escarole is fragrant and crunchy, its taste is delicate and much less bitter than usual.